The increase in consumption of fossil fuels as economies grow and the nearing depletion of such fuels has prompted a search for their alternatives worldwide. Biofuels have emerged as a substitute for fuel oil, especially for oil-importing countries and serve a multitude of purposes. The most important advantage of these fuels is that they are renewable, and are being seen as sustainable sources of energy. Some studies have also pointed out that biofuels help reduce environmental emissions,1 apart from addressing the problem of the rising import cost of fuel oil.
Among liquid fuels, there are mainly two types of biofuel: alcohols (ethanol and butanol) and diesel substitutes (such as biodiesel and hydro-treated vegetable oils). They can be used either individually as fuels or for blending in petrol or diesel. While biodiesel is mainly manufactured by transesterification of vegetable oil, ethanol is produced from starch contained in crops such as corn and sorghum or through fermentation of sugarcane, molasses, and sugar-beet. In India, ethanol production is mainly done using sugarcane as feedstock.
Transport has been identified as a major polluting sector and hence the use of biofuels is important in view of the tightening of emission norms. It is argued that blending ethanol with petrol2,3 and diesel will reduce import dependence on crude oil, saving on foreign exchange outflows to that extent. However, energy security can be addressed only if the supply of ethanol available to industry is adequate.
Ethyl alcohol or ethanol can either be produced by direct fermentation of cane juice or from molasses, which is a by-product of the sugar manufacturing process. In India, ethanol can be produced only from molasses whereas, mills in Brazil produce ethanol directly from sugarcane juice. Ethanol can be used for potable alcohol industry, chemical industry and as a bio-fuel in vehicles (direct/blended with gasoline).
In India, ethanol is consumed primarily by portable alcohol industry, Oil marketing companies (for blending with petrol) and chemical industries.
In Brazil, ethanol is primarily utilized as fuel in flex-fuel cars either directly as hydrous ethanol or anhydrous ethanol blended with gasoline.
What are the Benefits of Using Ethanol?
Ethanol is a relatively low-cost alternative fuel, but what are thebenefits of using ethanol or an ethanol blend in place of unblended gasoline? Using ethanol as an alternative to gasoline provides several key benefits.
Ethanol is good for the environment
Overall, ethanol is considered to be better for the environment than gasoline. Ethanol-fueled vehicles produce lower carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide emissions, and the same or lower levels of hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions
Ethanol can be made from any crop or plant that contains a large amount of sugar or components that can be converted into sugar, such as starch or cellulose.
As their names imply, sugar beets and sugar cane contain natural sugar. Crops such as corn, wheat and barley contain starch that can be easily converted to sugar.
Shreenathnagar, Patethan, Post‐ Rahu, Tal. ‐ Daund, Dist‐ Pune
Product - Various types of White Sugar, Raw Sugar , Power, Alcohol (RS, EQRS, ENA, Ethanol) etc.
A/P – Sanaswadi, Tal – Shirut, Dist‐ Pune
Product - Ethenol
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Product - Milk & Milk Products
Ethanol is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic, agreeable odor. In dilute aqueous solution, it has a somewhat sweet flavor, but in more concentrated solutions it has a burning taste.
Ethanol melts at -114.1°C, boils at 78.5°C, and has a typical density of 0.789 g/ml at 20°C.
Ethanol has been made since ancient times by the fermentation of sugars. All the beverage ethanol, and more than half of industrial ethanol, is still made by this process. Simple sugars are the raw materials. Enzyme from yeast, changes the simple sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Ethanol as a fuel
Ethanol is used as an automotive fuel by itself and can be mixed with gasoline to form gasohol. The most common blends contain 10% ethanol and 85% ethanol mixed with gasoline. Because the ethanol molecule contains oxygen, it allows the engine to more completely combust the fuel, resulting in fewer emissions. Since ethanol is produced from plants that harness the power of the sun, ethanol is also considered a renewable fuel. Therefore, ethanol has many advantages as an automotive fuel.
Trends in other countries
Other countries are either producing and using ethanol in large quantities or are providing incentives to expand ethanol production and use. Brazil & Sweden are using large quantities of ethanol as a fuel. Some Canadian provinces promote ethanol use as a fuel by offering subsidies. In France, ethanol is produced from grapes that are of insufficient quality for wine production. Prompted by the increase in oil prices in the 1970s, Brazil introduced a program to produce ethanol for use in automobiles in order to reduce oil imports. Brazilian ethanol is made mainly from sugar cane. Pure ethanol (100% ethanol) is used in approximately 40 percent of the cars in Brazil.
The remaining vehicles use blends of 24 % ethanol with 76 % Petrol (gasoline). In addition to consumption, Brazil also exports ethanol to other countries.
India initiated the use of ethanol as an automotive fuel in the year 2003. With a view to give boost to agriculture sector and reduce environmental pollution, Government of India has been examining the supply of ethanol doped-petrol in the country. In order to ascertain financial and operational aspects of blending 5% ethanol with petrol as allowed in the specifications of Bureau of Indian Standards for petrol. Government had launched three pilot projects; two in Maharashtra and one in Uttar Pradesh during April and June 2001. Apart from the aforesaid field through pilot projects, R & D studies also were undertaken simultaneously. Both pilot projects and R & D studies were successful and established blending of ethanol up to 5% with petrol and usage of ethanol-doped petrol in vehicles.
Discussions were held with concerned agencies including the Governments of major sugar producing States. While the Society for Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) had confirmed the acceptance for use of 5% ethanol doped- petrol in vehicles. State Governments of major sugar producing States and the representatives of sugar/distillery industries had confirmed availability /capacity to produce ethanol.
Expert Committee on Ethanol Blending:
Indian Government had set up an Expert Group headed by the Executive Director of the Centre for High Technology for examining various options of blending ethanol with petrol at terminals/depots. Considering the logistical and financial advantages, this Group had recommended blending of ethanol with petrol at supply locations (terminals / depots) of oil companies. In view of the above, Government vide the Gazette notification of 3rdSeptember, 2002 No. P-45018/28/2000-C.C had mandated that with effect from 1-1-2003, 5% ethanol-doped petrol will be supplied in following nine States and four contiguous Union Territories of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Pondicherry, Daman & Diu, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli & Chandigarh. This was the beginning of ethanol implementation in 1stphase. Government of India further announced to implement the Ethanol programme in 2nd phase. This was intended to supply ethanol bended Gasoline across the country effective the year 2006 and in 3rd phase switching over from the existing 5% to 10% blending of ethanol.
The broad contours of the national policy on biofuels — which has got the green signal from the Cabinet — seem unexceptionable. What is mandated, for instance, is welcome 20% ethanol-blending with petrol pan-India, by 2017.
Shri Pandurang RautDirector
Shri Vikas RaskarDirector
Shri Ajinkya KudaleDirector
Shri Anil BhujbalDirector
Shri Baban GaikwadDirector
Regola Bio-Chemical Pvt. Ltd.
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